1. Children who live without their fathers, are, on average, more likely to have problems in school performance (Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan, 1997; Horn & Sylvester, 2002; Kelly, 2000).
  2. They are more likely to have lower scores on achievement tests (McLanahan & Sandefeur, 1994; Painter & Levine, 2000; Pong & Ju, 2000; Snarey, 1993; US Department of Health and Human Services, 1995),
  3. Lower scores on intellectual ability and intelligence tests (Duncan, Brooks-Gunn, & Klebanov, 1994; Luster & McAdoo, 1994)
  4. Have lower grade point averages, (McLanahan & Sandefeur, 1994), be academic underachievers working below grade level (Blanchard & Biller, 1971)
  5. Have lower academic performance (Kelly, 2000)
  6. Have trouble solving complex mathematical and puzzle tasks, (Biller, 1981)
  7. Spend an average of 3.5 hours less per week studying (Zick & Allen, 1996).
  8. Children who live without their fathers, are, on average, more likely to experience behavior problems at school (Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan, 1997; Horn & Sylvester, 2002) such as having difficulty paying attention, disobedience, (Mott, Kowaleski-Jones, & Mehaghan, 1997), being expelled, suspended (Dawson, 1991), or have poor school attendance.
  9. They are more likely to drop out of school (McLanahan & Sandefur, 1994; Painter & Levine, 2000), twice as likely to repeat a grade (Nord & West, 2001), less likely to graduate from high school, more likely to complete fewer years of schooling, less likely to enroll in college (Krein & Beller, 1988; McLanahan & Sandefeur, 1994; Painter & Levine, 2000)
  10. More likely to be out of school and work or have poor labor attachments in their mid 20’s (McLanahan & Sandefeur, 1994).
  11. Boys who live without their fathers consistently score lower on a variety of moral indexes – such as measures of internal moral judgement, guilt following transgressions, acceptance of blame, moral values and rule conformity (Hoffman, 1971).
  12. Children in father absent homes are more likely to have problems in emotional and psychosocial adjustment and exhibit a variety of internalizing and externalizing behaviours (Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan, 1997; Horn & Sylvester, 2002; Kelly, 2000; Painter & Levine, 2000).
  13. In father absent homes, boys, on average, are more likely to be more unhappy, sad, depressed, dependent, and hyperactive. Girls who grow up in father absent homes are, on average, are more likely to become overly dependent (Mott et al., 1997) and have internalizing problems such as anxiety and depression (Kandel, Rosenbaum, & Chen, 1994).
  14. Children who live without their fathers are, on average, more likely to choose deviant peers, have trouble getting along with other children, be at higher risk for peer problems (Mott et al., 1997), and be more aggressive (Horn & Sylvester, 2002).
  15. Children who live without their fathers are, on average, are at greater risk of being physically abused, of being harmed by physical neglect, or of suffering from emotional neglect (Sedlak & Broadhurst, 1996).
  16. Children who live without their fathers are more likely to engage in criminal behavior (Horn & Sylvester, 2002),
  17. Father absence, rather than poverty, was the stronger predictor of young men’s violent behavior. Adolescents in father-absent homes face elevated incarceration risks (Harper & McLanahan, 2004).